Based on JFF's Medical Advisory Council Chair - Dr. Daniel Shapiro,  MD RBA

  • All three denominations (reform, conservative, and orthodox) will experience age related decline in fertility equally. The age brackets won't vary but diagnosis at presentation likely will.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and male factor will be most prevalent among the orthodox because of high rates of obesity in the orthodox community and because marriage and attempts at fecundity start earlier than among conservative and reform.
  • Conversely the reform and conservative would be more likely to experience egg related issues as they typically have first attempt at pregnancy older than orthodox women.​


  • ​​​Infertility is a disease that results in the abnormal functioning of the male or female reproductive system. -The World Health Organization, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recognize infertility as a disease.
  • Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse (six months if the woman is over age 35) or the inability to carry a pregnancy to live birth.
  • Georgia is not a state that mandates insurance coverage.​
  • The Affordable Care Act (ACA) does not require coverage for infertility treatments. Those states with an infertility mandate that covers IVF may have chosen an Essential Health Benefits (EHB) benchmark plan that includes the IVF mandate. The EHB impacts the individual and small group markets only in each state.
  • ​Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the placing of sperm into a woman's uterus when she is ovulating.​
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a highly sophisticated, meticulously timed procedure, which involves removing a ripened egg or eggs from the female's ovary, fertilizing it with semen, incubating the dividing cells in a laboratory dish and then replacing the developing embryo in the uterus at the appropriate time. –
  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) includes all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled outside of the body. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman. The main type of ART is in vitro fertilization (IVF). –
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is often used for couples with male factor infertility. Sometimes it is also used for older couples or for those with failed IVF attempts. In ICSI, a single sperm is injected into a mature egg as opposed to “conventional” fertilization where the egg and sperm are placed in a petri dish together and the sperm fertilizes an egg on its own.